In color theory, hue refers to the pure color of an object. The dominant wavelength of light determines how a hue appears. Where a color falls on the color wheel also controls a hue’s attribute.
The color wheel consists of 12 hues evenly spaced around the circle. Primary hues–red, yellow, and blue– are equidistant from each other on the color wheel. Designers create secondary hues by mixing equal parts of primary hues.
Mix a primary and secondary hue next to it on the wheel for a tertiary hue. Each hue’s brightness, saturation, and position on the color wheel are unique. Saturation refers to the intensity or purity of a hue. Brightness is its relative amount of lightness or darkness.
The Psychology of Hue
Various hues on the color wheel have unique psychological effects on our minds and emotions. Red, for instance, is a warm hue linked to love, passion, and excitement. It’s common in marketing as it stimulates the impulsive senses. Yellow symbolizes happiness, creativity, and optimism. Blue is a soothing hue that’s associated with trust and security.
Researchers at the University of British Columbia conducted a cognitive study. They placed participants in a room painted either blue or red. Those in the blue room had lower stress levels and higher creativity than those in the red room. Green also expresses a calming effect and positively impacts our mental and emotional well-being.
Hue vs. Color: What’s the Difference?
We often use the terms “hue” and “color” interchangeably. In color theory, they have specific terms. The dominant wavelength of light an object reflects determines the hue. Color is a general term encompassing the hues and properties of light and color.
The properties include tone, brightness, and saturation. Painting using different shades and tints of blue illustrates the difference between hue and color. While the painting’s hue is blue, an artist may calibrate the brightness, tone, and saturation.
How the Dominant Wavelength and Hue Relate
Color theory is the core of the wavelength and hue relationship. Designers and artists should understand the relationship before choosing a color scheme.
The dominant wavelength is the light color an object reflects or emits the most. For instance, a red apple appears red since it reflects the longest wavelength of light. In this case, the wavelength is in the range of 620-750 nanometers.
In contrast, a blue object reflects the shortest visible wavelength in the 450-490 nanometers range. The dominant wavelength of light corresponds to a specific hue on the color wheel. A dominant wavelength in the 590-620 nanometers range corresponds to a hue of yellow.
A range of 570-590 nanometers corresponds to a hue of orange. The color wheel arranges hues according to their dominant wavelengths.
Their relationship is, however, only sometimes straightforward. An object may reflect or emit light at many wavelengths, creating a range of hues. For example, a purple flower appears purple since it reflects red and blue wavelengths.
These wavelengths stimulate both the red and blue cone cells in our eyes. As a result, our brain interprets the combination as a blue color. Saturation and brightness also affect how the dominant wavelength and hue relate.
Understanding the differences helps artists and designers introduce nuance and sophistication into color schemes.
How Hue and Color Work Together
Hue and color work together to create complex colors around us. Consider a flower with a red hue. The flower’s color isn’t just red since it may have various tones, brightness, and saturation levels.
A bright flower with more saturation may appear more vibrant and intense than a dull one. While both have the same hue, varying brightness levels create a richer and more complex color.
Uses of Hue in Art and Design
Hue creates harmony in art and design. Artists and designers use hues to draw a specific emotional response from an audience. For example, warm colors such as red and orange evoke passion and energy.
Cool colors like blue and green bring calmness and a sense of serenity. Using the right hue impacts interior design, advertising, and painting.
Hue, Saturation, and Brightness in Photography
Hue, saturation, and brightness affect the look and feel of an image. In photography, white balance adjustments and color filters help alter various hues. Photographers manipulate hue to create a specific mood or effect.
Saturation is the intensity or purity of a color. In photography, adjusting saturation makes colors more vivid, intense, muted, or subdued. High saturation creates a bold, dynamic image. But low saturation creates a moody feel.
Photographers tweak brightness using exposure settings and contrast adjustments. A bright hue creates a sense of lightness, while a dark one is associated with mystery. Adjusting hue, saturation, and brightness establishes a range of visual styles.