The history and architecture of hacienda-style homes are rich and engaging. With origins in southern Spain, the Spanish used hacienda-style homes as plantations with animals and orchards, as well as mines and factories.
Haciendas were a part of traditional life in the Old World. Explorers and settlers from Spain brought this style to areas of the Southwestern United States as they began colonizing this region.
Hacienda-style houses are popular in warm areas of the United States because they work well in the climate. There are many small hacienda-style homes in California and the southwestern US.
What Are Hacienda-Style Homes?
A hacienda is a large Spanish estate. Haciendas began in Andalusia, an area in southern Spain. In Latin America, the owner of a hacienda is a hacendado or patrón.
Haciendas originated during the reconquering of the Iberian peninsula. Kings awarded nobles who fought in the wars large estates for farming and producing livestock. Explorers carried this organization model to the Americas. As conquistadors took over large tracts of land, rulers granted them the right to own and organize the property.
Modern hacienda-style homes in the United States are common in warm climates. You can find hacienda-style houses in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Florida. These houses feature the design elements of their colonial roots but have become an important domestic architectural style.
Characteristics of Hacienda-Style Homes
There are a few things that make traditional Mexican hacienda-style homes stand out.
Hacienda architecture styles include:
Clay Roof Tiles
Clay roof tiles are a feature of hacienda-style homes. Since Clay is a good insulator, this roof style is popular in hot climates. Clay absorbs daytime heat and releases it at night. Homes with clay tiles stay cool during the day and warm at night.
Stucco and adobe walls are a staple in hacienda-style homes. Before the arrival of the Spanish, indigenous people used adobe clay to build. The Spanish added the stucco element to finish the adobe walls.
Old and new hacienda homes will have thick adobe finished with white stucco. This wall type is ideal in a hot environment as, like clay tile, it absorbs heat during the day and releases the heat as the air cools.
Round Doorways and Archways
Rounded doorways and arches are a common Mediterranean design feature that Spanish colonizers brought to the Americas. This architectural element brings a touch of grandeur and elegance to the otherwise simple exterior of the hacienda.
Courtyards overlooking the open sky are a common hacienda home feature. Historically, people used courtyards to cook outdoors and keep the interior spaces cool. You’ll find a fountain or similar attraction in the center of the courtyard of modern haciendas.
Exposed beams are another traditional Spanish hacienda-style feature. They extend under the awnings and through the end of the home. Exposed beams in the interior are also a common hacienda feature. Interior beams provide texture and warmth on otherwise simple and bare walls.
Windows in stucco homes are small because they keep the heat out. Remodels will often tear out walls and add large windows. Designers who keep the integrity of a house will leave the windows in their original form.
Types of Hacienda-Style Houses
All hacienda-style homes share characteristics that make them similar, but there are some regional variations by type.
Traditional Mexican Hacienda-Style Homes
While there are some small Mexican hacienda-style homes, most traditional Mexican haciendas are large-scale estates. These were the centers of power for the local elite.
Traditional Mexican Haciendas have a more simple and rustic style than modern haciendas. Traditional Mexican hacienda-style homes might have lower ceiling heights and use more indigenous materials like adobe, wood, and thatch.
Spanish Colonial Hacienda Style Homes
Spanish colonial haciendas are reminiscent of Mediterranean and African influences.
These houses feature classical elements like symmetry and archways with columns with obvious European influences. These houses might also feature details related to Mudejar architecture, including tilework, horseshoe arches, and geometric detailing.
Texan Hacienda Style Homes
Texan hacienda-style homes are specific to the state of Texas. These homes feature many of the same style elements as other hacienda-style homes, with a few key differences.
Builders using local materials constructed many traditional Texan haciendas with a combination of adobe or wood, as wood was more common than adobe throughout Texas. These homes also feature more decor related to cowboy culture than to European or African influences.
Hacienda Style Homes By Modern Designers
Hacienda homes are popular in the US. Designers remodel traditional haciendas to make them more livable for the modern family while preserving their historic integrity.
Spanish Oaks Hacienda By John Siemering
This Mediterranean-style hacienda is in Austin, Texas. John Siemering Homes designed this distinctive home. Stucco walls, a red tile roof, small windows, and arched doorways are all the features of a traditional hacienda home.
One interesting thing about this home is that it mixes hacienda stucco with old-world stonework. Some of the windows are from the 1700s, ensuring the house retains its integrity and style.
Ojai Hacienda By Tom Meaney
This design is by Tom Meaney Architects. This cozy 6,000-square-foot home is in the mountains of Ojai in Ventura County, California. The scene is classic and a step back in time. There are no modern distractions surrounding the home. From the intricate tiles and stained glass to its authentic outdoor space, this home is an original design.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)FAQ
How Do You Choose A Roof For A Traditional Hacienda Style Home?
When searching for a roof for your traditional hacienda style home, you should first consider the neighborhood where it’s located. Next, the architectural style of your home will be another factor. You want the roof to be a good match.
What Are Some Cons Of Hacienda Style Homes?
Hacienda style homes are not suited for cold climates. If stucco is exposed to climates that change drastically during the year, it will shrink and crack. Tile roofs are not ideal in snowy conditions.
Also, stucco also doesn’t handle moisture well and requires sealing every few years.
Do Hacienda Style Homes Have Bug Problems?
Because of their open spaces and warm climate locations, bugs and insects can be a problem. If you take the right precautions and keep your home clean, then you should be fine.
You’ll need to contact a local fumigation service. They will understand your needs better than anyone.