An Enlightening Guide To Repairing, And Renovating Plaster Walls

Drywall has become popular it’s hard to imagine new homes using anything else. However, this doesn’t mean plaster walls have become extinct.  The material is more expensive than drywall, but that’s because it’s cheaper to repair than replacing an entire wall. The following review is an enlightening guide to repairing and renovating plaster walls. You will learn where they originated from, what they are, and how to repair them.

History Of Plaster Walls

Plaster walls View in gallery
Photo By Ancient Surfaces in New York – image from Ancientsurfaces.

Plaster has been used for thousands of years and can even be found in Egyptian pyramids. Through the centuries and decades, the ingredients have changed, depending on what has been available. Even today, the ingredients have changed depending on where you live.

However, in the late 1800s, gypsum was added to most plasters, permanently changing the way it was used.  

Today, drywall has replaced plaster. However, some homeowners and builders prefer to use plaster because of its durability and appearance.  

What Are Plaster Walls?

What Are Plaster Walls?View in gallery
Photo By Stonelace Designs

Plaster walls are made up of dry materials like sand or lime mixed with water. It hardens like concrete and mortar does when it dries. Drywall has replaced plaster for the most part due to its cost efficiency and easy installation.

Drywall can be used in minutes, but plaster is another story. 

Coats

Most walls begin with wooden slats over studs. These slats are known as laths. Recently, the lath has been replaced with a metal mesh to prevent cracking, but wood is still used in some cases. On top of that lath, you will see three coats of plaster.

The Scratch Coat

The first coat  is the scratch coat. This coat is easy to apply and works as a base for the other coats. The scratch coat is applied thickly and fills the cracks of the slats. After it is applied, grooves are placed on the surface to give the second coat something to stick to.

The Brown Coat

The brown coat is apllied second, giving the walls an even surface and square corners.

The Finish Coat

After the brown coat dries, you are ready for the final coat. There are many different types of finish coats that offer various textures and thicknesses. This is the only coat you will see, so it relies on personal preference.

Reason To Use Plaster Walls

Reason To Use Plaster WallsView in gallery
Photo By 450 Architects, Inc.

While drywall is slowly overtaking its plaster counterpart, there are still reasons to use plaster walls in your home. One of the main reasons is because they look more higher-end than drywall, which can be found in trailer homes.

Many people think the only reason to use plaster is when that’s what has already been installed in an old house. 

Plaster walls can have many textures and can even look like concrete, which is increasingly popular. But more than anything, people love plaster walls because if done right, they can last a lifetime. Not to mention, they are much more environmentally friendly than many other walls.

Plaster Wall Repair

Plaster Wall RepairView in gallery
Photo By CG Interior Groups

If your walls are cracked, you’ve come to the right place. Even a novice can engage in plaster wall repair by following a few simple tips. Cracks can be caused by foundation shifts, old structures, or bad weather.

Types Of Plaster Wall Cracks

There are many different types of cracks that can appear in plaster. The steps to repairing them are different depending on how big and deep they are.

Hairline Cracks

When dealing with hairline cracks, your best bet would be to remove the loose pieces and apply spackling to the affected areas. You can apply a thin coat and let it dry before adding a second layer if there is a need. After each coat, sand the area with sandpaper to see where you stand.

Wide Cracks

The first thing you need to do with a wide crack is press hard on each side to see if the crack is moving. If it is, the technique will be different. If it isn’t, then you need to apply plastering tape to the crack. Apply a thin coat of plaster underneath, then stick the tape to it.

Afterward, you apply to the top surface to even out the wall. Make sure that you apply more plaster to any side that’s deeper. Don’t forget to sand! Many people think they can get by without sanding, but not only does this make for a rough surface, but it’s nearly impossible to paint an unsanded wall.

Moving Cracks

This is when things get complicated. Moving cracks aren’t as easy to repair because the problem isn’t on the surface. What you do here is dig out the moving side until you find solid plaster that does not move. It may be more work, but if you don’t fix it now, it will require more work later.

Secure the loose side with plaster washers, drywall screws, and perforated discs. This will allow you to attach the loose plaster to the original lath. In a way, you’re starting over with the affected area. If you’re not a professional, you may want to watch a tutorial on how to fix moving cracks.

Painting

Spanish courtyard with plaster wallsView in gallery
Photo By WA Design Architects

If you do repair your walls, you’re also going to need to paint them. Painting over plaster isn’t the same as painting drywall. There are a few things you should know before you begin such a project.

Make A Checklist

As with any project, making a checklist will save you valuable time and money. Here’s everything you need for your shopping list:

  • Roller Frame – this is the metal frame used for paint rollers
  • Roller Brushes – It’s important to get more than one roller brush, as it’s easy to lose or allow the paint to dry on them, making the brush unusable
  • Paint Tray – If you’re using a roller, a tray is a necessity
  • Tray Liner – If you use a disposable tray, then a liner isn’t necessary
  • Angled Paintbrush – perfect for corners and hard to reach areas
  • Primer – a money-saving pre-paint coating
  • Paint – obviously
  • Painter’s Tape – not necessary, but makes it much easier
  • Drop Cloth – unless you’re a super tidy painter, you’ll want a drop cloth

While you may find other things to add to your list, this is everything that you’ll need if you don’t have more repairs to do.

Priming

Priming is nearly as important as painting. You will want an oil-based primer because plaster walls can soak up moisture. If you want to skip priming, go for it, but know that you will need extra layers of paint if you do so.

Brand doesn’t matter too much, so get whatever is available to you. You may even ask an employee for suggested options.

Matching Paint

Since plaster walls are common in older homes, you may be repairing old walls and trying to match the pre-existing paint. If this is the case, there are a few ways to do it. Taking a picture isn’t your best bet because each camera lets in a different amount of light and hues.

Most paint companies will let you send in scraps or pieces of plaster that have fallen and match the paint for you. Or, you can take the piece to the hardware store and match it yourself. If you’re painting a spot you just repaired, then you will be able to keep one of the broken pieces to match paint to.

Types Of Paint

While preference does matter, it’s best to use higher gloss paint when covering plaster. Many people prefer satin because of this. While matte colors won’t let imperfections show, satin colors will be easier to clean.

Fun Facts About Plaster Walls

Fun Facts About Plaster WallsView in gallery
Photo By Ancient Surfaces

Now that we’ve covered the necessary details, it’s time for the fun stuff.  

  • Marble Dust And Olives – those are just two of the more common, yet strange, ingredients used in plaster
  • Stucco Is Plaster Too – the buildings often found in Mexico are also just a fancy form of plaster
  • The Egyptians Used Plaster – as previously discussed, the pyramids used plaster too, some 4000-year-old plaster is still standing today
  • You Have Seen Plaster Elsewhere – not only is plaster great for building but it’s used for sculpting and other crafty projects as well
  • It Can Be Waterproof – while many plaster walls aren’t waterproof, there’s a special Moroccan plaster that resists mold and mildew
  • Natural Plasters Help The Environment – yep, many plasters are 100 perecent natural, making them an awesome option for those trying to do their part

Takeaway

While you may opt for drywall, or redoing your old walls completely, don’t be afraid to try something new. Or, in this case, old. Plaster walls have never gone out of style, and we shouldn’t let them. They’re long-lasting, environmentally friendly, and gorgeous!