Swimming pools in general can be divided into several types, according to certain characteristics. The most simple and vast classification is in indoor and outdoor swimming pools. But indoor swimming pools can also be of many different types. You can have either a covered or an uncovered indoor pool, an in ground pool or one above ground, heated or simple, etc.
Outdoor swimming pool can often be easier and cheaper to maintain because of the humidity factor. Indoor pools need specialized equipment for dehumidifying the air as well as several other features. Also, indoor swimming pools are usually heated so they can be used all year around, even when the weather is harsh.
This is one of the major advantages it presents. An interesting option is to have an indoor pool which is open only during summer. For that you would need a retractable roof or a space that can open onto the exterior.
The shape and design of the pool can vary drastically according to personal preferences. You can have a long and narrow pool which runs the length of a wall and you can separate it from your living room with a transparent glass wall for a strong visual impact. You can also have a pool that extends outdoors as a sort of compromise.